What’s awe? It’s quite simply something remarkable. Something that people can’t resist commenting on. This can be in the form of a story, a real-life event, or it can also be something as simple as an exhaustive list of 101 links to helpful resources.

See this Twitter Tips page as an example.


When you piss people off, they’ll work hard attain justice. They’ll talk about it on Twitter, write blog posts, and more.

How can you trigger anger? All you have to do is challenge someones beliefs and it’s a sure-thing.

See the Content is King Myth Debunked as an example.

(Note, I don’t recommend you piss people off for fun all the time. It’s a bad marketing strategy).


People hate anxiety. What creates anxiety? If you’re writing content that talks about potentially losing out on something, that’s one way. People hate losing things they have.

See the #1 Conversion Killer in Web Design as an example.


Fear is one of the biggest motivators on Earth. It targets the reptilian brain, and people can’t resist but take action when motivated with fear.

What’s an example of fear? You can make people worry that they’re making mistakes they’re unaware of. You can also target the fear of loss (aka limited quantities).

As an example, see the article How Images Improve—Or Destroy—Conversion Rates


What makes people happy? There’s loads of things. It can be something funny, inspiring, or anything that’s positively uplifting.

One of my favorite ways to target the “joy” emotion is by telling a story from my life that I know people can connect with. It really takes advantage of nostalgia and bonds with people who read it.

As an example, you might remember the article where I told the story about my dad and chess.


People can lust for more than just sex. They can lust after money, results, women, men, or anything like that. To target that, you simply need to tantalize readers with potential results.

While I don’t have examples of lust in action at Social Triggers, I’m sure you get the idea :-).


What surprises people? Anything that goes against their expectations. You can challenge assumptions, and prove them wrong. You can share new ways of doing things, or share results of personal tests.

Overall, this is one of the main high-arousal feelings I target with Social Triggers because it works great. As an example, take a look at my previous article “The Problem with Fast Loading Websites.”

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Example: The Content is King “Myth” Debunked

In that article, I challenged the widely accepted assumption that “content is king.”

I cited research that backed up my claim, and the article took off. Thousands of hits and hundreds of retweets and Facebook likes later, I had a viral piece of content on my hands.

Why did it take off?

I had data with surprising results. There were some people that were SHOCKED at what I discovered, and thus they had to share it with their friends and colleagues.

The article also did one other thing though…

That article also pissed off a bunch of people that have parroted the whole notion of “content is king.”

I successfully invoked anger, and the angered people tried to poke holes in my claims. They wrote follow-up articles (scoring me links), left tons of comments (that article has more than 140 comments), and shared it with everyone they knew.

Traffic win.

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Morning Joy

The space is full of notes after only a few minutes, like half an hour. This is delightful. Now I want to look at it on mobile and go eat some cereal :D

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What goes viral?

1. Positive content is more viral than negative content.

(Amazing, right? When you read the news, you’d think that negativity was a must, heh).

2. Content that evoked high arousal emotions

—positive or negative—is more viral than content without emotion.

(What’s a high-arousal emotion? Think awe, anger, anxiety, or anything related to the fear of loss)

3. Practically useful content gets shared.

(That makes sense, right? People like sharing practically useful content to help out their fans and friends)

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How To Use This Mug

go through your content, figure out the next actions you want people to take, and finish your article with a section that tells people those next action steps.

It seems so simple, but it’s powerful.

Psychologists have long known that people are bad at applying broad concepts to their own lives. It’s why people know the 80/20 rule, but rarely implement it in their lives and business.

And that’s why this simple “next action” section is so great. You show your readers exactly how to use the content you gave them in their lives. And what happens? They use it… get results… and remember you for it.

Pretty cool, right?

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Questions going viral?

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Tantalize with Potential Results to trigger Lust.

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Maybe this is absolutely the best thing to do first thing in the morning.

  • Would I go to anything else first thing in the morning? Social stuff and Email are the only two real competitors.
  • Is this a better thing to do than to open Evernote in the morning? How about Google Docs?
  • What will make millions of kids wake up to creating a new metanotes space for that morning and just sitting there typing like this?
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  • I get some more mugs up there... a nice yoga to occupy my time
  • Explore Pinterest - they might be doing new stuff, let's see what's up
  • Put the Unamerican mugs on pinterest and see what happens? Taking screenshots all the way
  • God I wish I had my money from last year back so I could advertise these mugs etc...
  • What will go viral?
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What should I do to make progress today without disturbing anyone else?

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Duplicate This Space

I wish I could duplicate this space so that I could rename it as VIRALTIPS or something...

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  • My aunt and uncle are coming today, maybe sleeping over tonight (or longer?)
  • John needs time to rest and I want to give it to him because I know we've got something special here!!
  • Faraj for tinyvox is free (slightly!) at the end of this week (i think?)
  • Marc may be free to do some tinyvox, i would love him to make the youtube work again
  • TD ameritrade is trying to call me this week and I don't want to call them back because it's just like, I failed, give me back my money, and I worry there may be some insane IRS thing that I don't want to have to deal with...
  • I want to come up with the pinterest traction strategy.
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Dad has to begin a conversation with Qualcomm Ventures today. This will be a powerpoint attachment to an email that is sent to the VC as an overview and CC'ed to Edward and Tim.

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Twitter For Business?

Hi Ananda,

Are you interested in learning how to use Twitter for your business, but don't know where to begin?

Here's a free guide to Twitter for business to help you start taking advantage of this powerful social media tool. With this guide, you can start to expand Sarakere Consulting's marketing.

After reading this guide, you'll know to use Twitter for marketing, lead generation, public relations, and social search.

Want to learn more about using Twitter for your business? You're in luck! We've got a webinar coming up on June 24th, 1pm EDT hosted by HubSpot & Twitter. Save your seat now to learn 10 best practices for Twitter optimization and much, much more.

Hope to see you there,

Jessica Webb Head of Email Marketing, HubSpot

© HubSpot 25 1st St. Cambridge, MA 02141 USA

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good news bad news

WAIT ONE LITTLE SECOND I’VE GOT SOME GOOD NEWS AND SOME BAD NEWS... Hold on! Let's start with the bad news. Before I complete your registration, you MUST confirm your email. It's easy:

Step 1: Check your email for a message from Derek Halpern with the subject "RESPONSE REQUIRED: Before you can access your material, confirm your email"

Step 2: Click the Confirmation link in that email.

If you don't do this RIGHT NOW, you won't receive anything from me. Why? I do this to weed out fake emails.

Now for the good news...

Once you confirm your email, you're all set. You'll gain access to exactly what you requested, and you can get started.

Note: if you don't receive the e-mail in 5 minutes, check your spam folder. Sometimes spam robots make mistakes and put my e-mails in there. Silly robots.

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Actually,email Tim first?

He had some skeptical questions and I want to address them with referral to the corning paper.

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What should they do next?

So make sure you show people how to implement the advice you give them. Take the time to show them an example, and give them next action steps.

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Some intuition is telling me we could get interest from them for this.... If that was something that John wanted, that is, of course... They seem relatively Z-free?

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2008: samsung tries single crystal si?

Journal of the Korean Physical Society, Vol. 54, No. 1, January 2009, pp. 549553 TFT Backplane Technologies for AMLCD and AMOLED Applications Jae Beom Choi, Young Jin Chang, Cheol Ho Park, Beom Rak Choi and Hyo Seok Kim OLED Lab., Samsung Electronics Co., Gyeonggi 449-711 Kee Chan Park Department of Electronic Engineering, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Received 24 January 2008) We thoroughly investigated low-temperature polycrystalline silicon (LTPS) thin- lm transistor (TFT) backplane technologies based on (1) a melt-mediated crystallization process with laser sys- tems, (2) a solid phase crystallization process with advanced annealing systems and (3) a single- crystalline Si layer transferred onto a large glass substrate for at-panel-display applications. Ex- tensive micro-structural analyses of the silicon lms, comparison of the TFT performances and evaluation of the image quality of the displays enabled us to choose the competitive technologies for large-area active-matrix liquid-crystal display (AMLCD) and active-matrix organic light-emitting diode (AMOLED) applications. PACS numbers: 85.60.Pg, 73.61.Cw, 81.05.Cy, 81.10.Fq, 81.10.Jt Keywords: Low-temperature polycrystalline silicon (LTPS), Excimer laser annealing (ELA), Sequential lat- eral solidi cation (SLS), Solid phase crystallization (SPC), Nanocap-assisted crystallization (NAC), Silicon on glass (SiOG) I. INTRODUCTION Large-area active-matrix liquid crystal display (AMLCD) TVs are based on amorphous silicon (a- Si) thin- lm-transistor (TFT) backplanes. However, small-area AMLCDs for premium mobile devices are based on low-temperature polycrystalline silicon (LTPS) TFT backplanes because the conventional a-Si TFT backplane cannot meet speci cations such as high aperture ratio and low power consumption. In addition, active-matrix organic light-emitting diode (AMOLED) displays with LTPS TFT backplanes have been adopted not only for the mobile devices but also for TVs with diagonal sizes larger than 10 inches. Unlike the AMLCD which utilize an a-Si:H TFT back- plane for large size and a LTPS backplane for small size, there are still many research activities to nd the optimum TFT backplane technology for a high-quality AMOLED display. There are four major TFT backplane technologies for AMOLEDs: (1) a-Si:H TFTs, (2) LTPS TFTs obtained by using a melt-mediated crystallization process, (3) LTPS TFTs obtained by using a solid phase crystallization process and (4) a single crystalline silicon layer transferred onto a glass substrate. Among these, the a-Si:H TFT technology is best established for mass production and the displays with a-Si:H TFT backplanes show excellent uniformity over large areas [1]. However E-mail: keechan@konkuk.ac.kr; Fax: +82-2-3437-5235 the threshold voltage shift under continuous positive bias stress is a critical limitation to AMOLED applications [2]. In this paper, we will review the other three di er- ent technologies to obtain a suitable backplane for both active-matrix display applications. II. MELT-MEDIATED CRYSTALLIZATION PROCESS The melt-mediated crystallization process includes (1) melting of the precursor a-Si lm and (2) subsequent solidi cation of the liquid a-Si, resulting in a polycrys- talline silicon (poly-Si) lm of various microstructures, depending on the process parameters. The phase trans- formation scenarios of the melt-mediated crystallization process include (1) partial melting, where only the sur- face of the a-Si lm is melted and solidi cation takes place in the vertical direction from the bottom, resulting in small grains, (2) near complete melting, where the a-Si lm is melted to the bottom with a small number of un- melted Si clusters remaining discontinuously and lateral solidi cation takes place producing grains much larger than the lm thickness and (3) complete melting, where the entire a-Si lm is melted and nucleation-triggered solidi cation starts under super-cooled condition, again resulting in ne grains. Among the various types of laser systems that can be used for the melt-mediated crystallization process, the -549- -550- Journal of the Korean Physical Society, Vol. 54, No. 1, January 2009 Fig. 1. TS-SLS process: (a) laser irradiation and (b) re- sulting microstructure. excimer laser annealing (ELA) system has been widely utilized for the LTPS TFT backplanes for AMLCDs [3]. The crystallization is carried out by scanning narrow laser pulses (e.g., 465-mm long and 0.5-mm wide) over the a-Si lm on a large glass substrate. The process window of the laser energy density in the near-complete- melting condition is rather narrow; thus, the resulting microstructure of the poly-Si material is sensitive to uc- tuations in the laser energy. Therefore, the ELA system should have highly uniform laser intensity pro le, both the long and the short axes and shot-to-shot consistency. In particular, even a small variation in the laser inten- sity can be easily perceived in case of the AMOLED dis- play because the brightness is directly associated with the current owing through the driving transistor. The mura in the scanning direction is associated with the nonuniformity of the laser intensity along the long axis and the mura perpendicular to the scanning direction is associated with the shot-to-shot nonuniformity of the laser intensity. On the other hand, the sequential lateral solidi cation (SLS) process with a patterned laser beamlet has also been utilized for AMLCD production [4, 5]. The SLS process is composed of (1) laser irradiation through a patterned mask to provide an abrupt temperature pro- le at the edge of the irradiated area, leading to con- trolled super lateral growth (C-SLG), (2) translation of the substrate by a precisely controlled distance and (3) repetition of (1) and (2) resulting in complete crystal- lization of the lm. Compared to the conventional ELA systems, the advantage of the SLS process is (1) a wider process window in laser intensity, (2) controllability of the grain size and (3) scalability of the substrate. However, the process time of the original SLS process is several times longer than that of the ELA. To improve the throughput of the SLS processes to be even higher than ELA, the two-shot (TS) SLS process has been de- veloped and is being utilized in the mass production as Fig. 2. (a) 300 VGA AMLCD and (b) 1400 WXGA AMOLED display fabricated on the TS-SLS TFT backplane. the most competitive technique [6]. Figure 1 illustrates the TS-SLS process including (a) the laser irradiation scheme and (b) the resulting microstructure. \L" is the line width of the open area on the mask, \S" is the space between the open areas and the grain size is determined as (L + S)/2. With the LTPS TFT backplanes obtained by us- ing the TS-SLS process, we could make high-quality AMLCD products and a 1400 WXGA (1280  RGB  768) AMOLED display without any mura associated with the laser crystallization process, as shown in Fig- ure 2. We adopted a voltage-addressed compensation circuit with six TFTs and a capacitor in each pixel for the 1400 AMOLED display. III. SOLID PHASE CRYSTALLIZATION (SPC) The solid phase crystallization (SPC) process is the simplest and the lowest-cost process to obtain poly-Si lms on large-area glass substrates. In this process, un- like the melt-mediated crystallization process, the a-Si lm is directly transformed to the crystalline structure via nucleation and grain growth process at a tempera- ture around 600 C. The SPC process can be catego- TFT Backplane Technologies for AMLCD and AMOLED   { Jae Beom Choi et al. -551- Fig. 3. 2.200 qVGA AMOLED display employing the SPC TFT backplane. rized into two groups: (1) simple SPC process and (2) metal-induced-crystallization (MIC) process where the crystallization temperature is reduced to below 500 C by employing metal catalysts. As for the process equip- ment, magnetic- eld-aided rapid thermal annealing may be utilized in addition to a conventional furnace. The magnetic eld induces an eddy current in the heated a- Si lm and, thus, produces a poly-Si lm in a reduced process time [7]. The simple SPC process does not require any addi- tional process other than the thermal annealing. The precursor material and the annealing temperature deter- mine the average grain size and the crystallinity of the completed lm. Since the scale of crystalline irregularity in the SPC poly-Si is much smaller than the device di- mension, SPC TFTs have uniform characteristics over a large area [8,9]. As shown in Figure 3, we could obtain a 2.200 qVGA (240  RGB  320) AMOLED display by us- ing the SPC TFT backplanes without any compensation circuit in the pixel. For AMOLED TV applications, a carrier mobility of 1 cm2/Vs is high enough to drive the OLED current in each pixel because the TFT channel width can be expanded to hundreds of micrometers for a pixel den- sity below 100 ppi (pixels per inch) to meet the current requirements, which is the case in a normal TV. How- ever, the crystallinity must be increased by reducing the defect density in the SPC poly-Si lm in order to im- prove the mobility up to a level that can be used for Fig. 4. 21.300 UXGA AMOLED display based on the NAC TFT backplane. high-performance AMLCDs because more and more cir- cuits need to be integrated on recent value-added display panels. In addition, the process temperature should be further lowered below 550 C in order to prevent the glass warpage problem frequently observed in large glass substrates. In the MIC process, metal catalysts are utilized to promote the crystallization process at reduced tempera- ture. For example, when Ni is used as the catalyst ma- terial, the Ni atoms in/on the a-Si lm can form nickel silicide at temperatures lower than the intrinsic crystal- lization temperature (600 C) [10, 11] and the NiSi2 propagates through the a-Si matrix, leaving a needle- shaped crystalline Si region even at 484 C [12]. Since the individual Si grains obtained when using the MIC process tend to have textures with a certain orienta- tion, further treatment can provide better structured poly-Si lms with reduced defect density at the grain boundaries [13,14]. With improved crystallinity, the MIC TFTs can have a mobility higher than that of the SPC TFTs [12, 15{20]. However, the leakage current associ- ated with Ni contamination is rather higher compared with that of the simple SPC TFTs. In order to solve the Ni contamination problem, a gettering process, in which the Ni atoms in the crystallized Si lm di use to the phosphorus-implanted region during the dopant ac- tivation process and a nanocap-assisted crystallization (NAC) process [21], in which a thin SiO2 capping layer is formed on top of the a-Si lm prior to the deposition of Ni in order to control the Ni contents, have been de- veloped. With the LTPS TFT backplanes obtained by using the NAC process, we fabricated a 21.300 UXGA (1600  RGB  1200) AMLCD as shown in Figure 4. In order to exploit these MIC materials for AMOLED ap- plications, we found that the nonuniformity of the grain size and the nonuniformity of the Ni distribution along the domain boundaries should be controlled. Although the uniformity and the current-driving ca- pability of the SPC, including MIC, TFTs are sucient as AMOLED backplanes, the stability is not satisfactory -552- Journal of the Korean Physical Society, Vol. 54, No. 1, January 2009 Fig. 5. Schematic diagram of the SiOG process comprising (a) hydrogen implantation, (b) bonding, (c) separation and (d) thinning of the Si wafer transferred on the glass substrate. due to high trap density. The poor stability is revealed as hysteresis in the TFT characteristics and causes im- age sticking in the display [22,23]. The microcrystalline silicon (c-Si) TFTs that have recently attracted much attention also su er from the same instability problem, though they are much better than the a-Si TFTs [8,24]. Poor stability due to the interface states is observed even for the badly fabricated ELA LTPS TFTs [25]. However it is remarkably improved by using a SLS backplane ow- ing to the higher crystallinity that is characteristic of the SLS process. IV. SINGLE CRYSTALLINE SILICON Finally, we investigated the feasibility of utilizing sin- gle crystalline Si materials on large glass substrates for active matrix display applications. Since the variation in the TFT performance is detrimental to the image quality of the AMOLED, there have been attempts to avoid the grain boundary-related problems by transferring single- crystalline Si layers to the glass substrates [26]. Figure 5 shows a schematic diagram of the silicon-on- glass (SiOG) process developed by Corning Inc. [27]. The SiOG process consists of (1) hydrogen implanta- tion to the Si wafers to form the separation zone (Fig- ure 5(a)), (2) anodic bonding of the hydrogen-implanted wafers to the glass substrate, resulting in strong SiOx bonding between them (Figure 5(b)), (3) separation of the wafers, leaving a thin silicon layer on the glass sub- strate (Figure 5(c)) and (4) thinning the Si layer through chemical and mechanical polishing (Figure 5(d)). The thickness of the Si layer can be controlled within a stan- dard deviation of several nanometers and the maximum process temperature does not exceed 400 C. Figure 6 shows a 1.900 (320  RGB  240) AMLCD and a 2.200 (240  RGB  320) AMOLED display fabricated by us- ing the SiOG process. F The advantages of the SiOG process are (1) the absence of troublesome grain bound- aries, which enables us to make a uniform AMOLED display free from the mura associated with the grain boundaries, (2) a lower defect density compared with Fig. 6. (a) 1.900 qVGA AMLCD and (b) 2.200 qVGA AMOLED display based on the SiOG TFT backplane. the polycrystalline material which leads us to fabricate an AMLCD with a high level of monolithic circuit inte- gration and (3) a simpli ed TFT process with cost com- petitiveness over the conventional LTPS process. The ultimate goal of the SiOG technology is to obtain high- quality AMOLED displays without any compensation circuit in the pixel and fully-integrated AMLCDs. V. SUMMARY We reviewed the TFT backplane technologies for high-performance active-matrix at panel display ap- plications. Although the melt-mediated crystallization process with a laser system is widely utilized in the mass production of AMLCDs, the laser-related device's nonuniformity should be further improved to fabricate AMOLED displays with enhanced production yield. Solid phase crystallization may be an alternative for large-area AMOLED displays if the stability of the TFT is improved. For the present, the laser-annealed LTPS TFT Backplane Technologies for AMLCD and AMOLED   { Jae Beom Choi et al. -553- TFT is the only possible technology for the commercial- ization of AMOLED display because it has no critical problem, unlike the image sticking in the SPC backplane. The SiOG technology is expected to be utilized for small- sized AMLCDs or AMOLED displays in the near future. REFERENCES [1] S. H. Kim, J. H. Hur, K. M. Kim, J. H. Koo and J. Jang, J. Korean Phys. Soc. 48, S80 (2006). [2] J. H. Koo, J. W. Choi, Y. S. Kim, M. H. Kang, S. H. Kim, E. B. Kim, H. Uchike, S. W. Lee and J. Jang, J. Korean Phys. Soc. 50, L933 (2007). [3] T. Nishibe and H. Nakamura, SID '06 Digest, 1091 (2006). [4] C. W. Kim, K. C. Moon, H. J. Kim, K. C. Park, C. H. Kim, I. G. Kim, C. M. Kim, S. Y. Joo, J. K. Kang and U. J. Chung, SID '04 Digest, 868 (2004). [5] J. B. Choi, K. C. Park, K. C. Moon, J. H. Eom, R. Yokoyama and C. W. Kim, J. Soc. Inf. Display 15, 931 (2007). [6] J. B. Choi, Y. J. Chang, C. H. Park, Y. I. Kim, J. Eom, H. D. Na, I. D. Chung, S. H. Jin, Y. R. Song, B. Choi, K. Park, C.W. Kim, J. Souk, Y. S. Kim, B. H. Jung and K. C. Park, SID '08 Digest, 97 (2008). [7] K. H. Kang, S. J. Lee, S. E. Nam and H. J. Kim, Mat. Sci. Forum 449, 513 (2004). [8] T. Arai, N. Morosawa, Y. Hiromasu, K. Hidaka, T. Nakayama, A. Makita, M. Toyota, N. Hayashi, Y. Yoshimura, A. Sato, K. Namekawa, Y. Inagaki, N. Umezu and K. Tatsuki, SID '07 Digest, 1370 (2007). [9] S. K. Hong, B. K. Kim and Y. M. Ha, SID '07 Digest, 1366 (2007). [10] N. K. Song, M. S. Kim, Y. S. Kim, S. H. Han and S. K. Joo, J. Korean Phys. Soc. 51, 1076 (2007). [11] Y. S. Kim, N. K. Song, M. S. Kim, S. J. Lee and S. K. Joo, J. Korean Phys. Soc. 51, 1156 (2007). [12] C. Hayzelden and J. L. Batstone, J. Appl. Phys. 73, 8279 (1993). [13] Y. Hirakata, M. Sakakura, S. Eguchi, Y. Shionori, S. Yamazaki, H. Washio, Y. Kubota, N. Makita and M. hijikigawa, SID '00 Digest, 1014 (2000). [14] S. K. Kim, J. H. Oh, J. H. Cheon and J. Jang, J. Korean Phys. Soc. 48, 1526 (2006). [15] S. Y. Yoon, N. Y. Young, P. J. Zaag and D. McCulloch, IEEE Electron. Dev. Lett. 24, 22 (2003). [16] J. C. Kim, J. H. Choi, S. S Kim, K. M. Kim and J. Jang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5068 (1993). [17] M. Kim, K. B. Kim, K. Y. Lee, C. H. Yu, H. D. Kim and H. K. Chung, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 044508 (2008). [18] N. Kubo, N. Kusumoto, T. Inushima and S. Yamazaki, IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 41, 1876 (1994). [19] Z. Jin, H. S. Kwok and M. Wong, IEEE Elec. Dev. Lett. 20, 167 (1999). [20] S. Zhang, R. Han, J. K. O. Sin and M. Chan, IEEE Elec. Dev. Lett. 22, 530 (2001). [21] Y. J. Chang, Y. I. Kim, S. H. Shim, S. Park, K. W. Ahn, S. C. Song, J. B. Choi, H. K. Min and C. W. Kim, SID '06 Digest, 1276 (2006). [22] D. H. Nam, H. K. Lee, S. H. Jung, T. J. Ahn, C. Y. Kim, C. D. Kim and I. J. Chung, ECS Trans. 3, 57 (2006). [23] S. H. Jung, H. K. Lee, C. Y. Kim, S. Y. Yoon, C. D. Kim and I. B. Kang, SID '08 Digest, 101 (2008). [24] T. Tsujimura, W. Zhu, S. Mizukoshi, N. Mori, K. Miwa, S. Ono, Y. Maekawa, K. Kawabe and M. Kohno, SID '07 Digest, 84 (2007). [25] B. K. Kim, O. Kim, H. J. Chung, J. W. Chang and Y. M. Ha, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L482 (2004). [26] J. B. Choi, Y. J. Chang, S. H. Shim, I. D. Chung, K. W. Park, K. C. Park, K. C. Moon, H. K. Min and C.-W. Kim, SID '07 Digest, 1378 (2007). [27] J. G. Couillard, K. P. Gadkaree and J. F. Mach, US Patent 7176528, 2007.

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